"The Anglo-Saxon and the World's Future" (1890)

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You may note some of the nearly prophetic accuracy of this piece.

"The Anglo-Saxon and the World's Future" (1890)
Josiah Strong
Every race which has deeply impressed itself on the human family has been the
representative of some great idea—one or more—which has given direction to the nation's life
and form to its civilization. Among the Egyptians this seminal idea was life, among the Persians it
was light, among the Hebrews it was purity, among the Greeks it was beauty, among the Romans
it was law. The Anglo-Saxon is the representative of two great ideas, which are closely related.
One of them is that of civil liberty. Nearly all of the civil liberty of the world is enjoyed by AngloSaxons: the English, the British colonists, and the people of the United States. To some, like the
Swiss, it is permitted by the sufferance of their neighbors; others, like the French, have
experimented with it; but, in modern times, the peoples whose love of liberty has won it, and
whose genius for self-government has preserved it, have been Anglo-Saxons. The noblest races
have always been lovers of liberty. The love ran strong in early German blood, and has profoundly
influenced the institutions of all the branches of the great German family; but it was left for the
Anglo-Saxon branch fully to recognize the right of the individual to himself, and formally to
declare it the foundation stone of government.
The other great idea of which the Anglo-Saxon is the exponent is that of a pure spiritual
Christianity. It was no accident that the great reformation of the sixteenth century originated
among a Teutonic, rather than a Latin people. It was the fire of liberty burning in the Saxon heart
that flamed up against the absolutism of the Pope. Speaking roughly, the peoples of Europe which
are Celtic are Roman Catholic, and those which are Teutonic are Protestant; and where the
Teutonic race was purest, there Protestantism spread with the greatest rapidity. But, with
beautiful exceptions, Protestantism on the continent has degenerated into mere formalism. By
confirmation at a certain age, the state churches are filled with members who generally know
nothing of a personal spiritual experience. In obedience to a military order, a regiment of German
soldiers files into church and partakes of the sacrament, just as it would shoulder arms or obey
any other word of command. It is said that, in Berlin and Leipsic, only a little over one per cent of
the Protestant population are found in church. Protestantism on the continent seems to be about
as poor in spiritual life and power as Romanism. That means that most of the spiritual Christianity
in the world is found among Anglo-Saxons and their converts; for this is the great missionary
race. If we take all of the German missionary societies together, we find that, in the number of
workers and amount of contributions, they do not equal the smallest of the three great English
missionary societies. The year that the Congregationalists in the United States gave one dollar and
thirty-seven cents per caput to foreign missions, the members of the great German State Church
gave only three-quarters of a cent per caput to the same cause.
Evidently it is chiefly to the
English and American peoples that we must look for the evangelization of the world. It is not
necessary to argue to those for whom I write that the two great needs of mankind, that all men
may be lifted up into the light of the highest Christian civilization, are, first, a pure, spiritual
Christianity, and second, civil liberty. Without controversy, these are the forces which, in the past,
have contributed most to the elevation of the human race, and they must continue to be, in the
future, the most efficient ministers to its progress. It follows, then, that the Anglo-Saxon, as the
great representative of these two ideas, the depositary of these two greatest blessings, sustains
peculiar relations to the world's future, is divinely commissioned to be, in a peculiar sense, his
brother's keeper. Add to this the fact of his rapidly increasing strength in modern times, and we
have well-nigh a demonstration of his destiny. In 1700 this race numbered less than 6,000,000
souls. In 1800, Anglo-Saxons (I use the term somewhat broadly to include all English-speaking
peoples) had increased to about 20,500,000, and now, in 1890, they number more than
120,000,000, having multiplied almost six-fold in ninety years. At the end of the reign of Charles
II. the English colonists in America numbered 200,000. During these two hundred years, our
population has increased two hundred and fifty-fold. And the expansion of this race has been no
less remarkable than its multiplication. In one century the United States has increased its territory
ten-fold, while the enormous acquisition of foreign territory by Great Britain—and chiefly within
the last hundred years—is wholly unparalleled in history. This mighty Anglo-Saxon race, though
comprising only one-thirteenth part of mankind, now rules more than one-third of the earth's
surface, and more than one-fourth of its people. And if this race, while growing from 6,000,000 to
120,000,000, thus gained possession of a third portion of the earth, is it to be supposed that when
it numbers 1,000,000,000, it will lose the disposition, or lack the power to extend its sway?
This race is multiplying not only more rapidly than any other European race, but more
rapidly than all the races of continental Europe taken together. There is no exact knowledge of
the population of Europe early in the century. We know, however, that the increase on the
continent during the ten years from 1870 to 1880 was 6.89 per cent. If this rate of increase is
sustained for a century, the population on the continent in 1980 will be 534,000,000; while the
one Anglo-Saxon race, if it should multiply for a hundred years as fast as from 1870 to 1880,
would in 1980 number 1,111,000,000 souls, an incredible increase, of course.
What then will be the probable numbers of this race a hundred years hence? It is hazardous
to venture a prophecy, but we may weigh probabilities. In studying this subject several things
must be borne in mind. Heretofore, the great causes which have operated to check the growth of
population in the world have been war, famine, and pestilence; but, among civilized peoples, these
causes are becoming constantly less operative. Paradoxical as it seems, the invention of more
destructive weapons of war renders war less destructive; commerce and wealth have removed the
fear of famine, and pestilence is being brought more and more under control by medical skill and
sanitary science. Moreover, Anglo-Saxons, with the exception of the people of Great Britain, who
now compose less than one-third of this race, are much less exposed to these checks upon growth
than the races of Europe. Again, Europe is crowded, and is constantly becoming more so, which
will tend to reduce continually the ratio of increase; while over two-thirds of the Anglo-Saxons
occupy lands which invite almost unlimited expansion—the United States, Canada, Australia, and
South Africa. Again, emigration from Europe, which will probably increase, is very largely into
Anglo-Saxon countries; and, though these foreign elements exert a modifying influence on the
Anglo-Saxon stock, their descendants are certain to be Anglo-Saxonized. From 1870 to 1880,
Germany lost 987,000 inhabitants by emigration, most of whom came to the United States. In one
generation, their children will be counted Anglo-Saxons. This race has been undergoing an unparalleled expansion during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and the conditions for its
continued growth are singularly favorable. J
We are now prepared to ask what light statistics cast on the future. In Great Britain, from
1840 to 1850, the ratio of increase of the population was 2.49 per cent; during the next ten years
it was 5.44 per cent; the next ten years, it was 8.60; from 1870 to 1880, it was 10.57; and from
1880 to 1889 it was 10.08 per cent. That is, for fifty years the ratio of increase has been rapidly
It is not unlikely to continue rising for some time to come; but, remembering that the
population is dense, in making our estimate for the next hundred years, we will suppose the ratio
of increase to be only one-half as large as that from 1870 to 1880, which would make the
population in 1980, 57,000,000. All the great colonies of Britain, except Canada, which has a
great future, show a very high ratio of increase in population; that of Australia, from 1870 to
1880, was 56.50 per cent; that of South Africa was 73.28. It is quite reasonable to suppose that
the colonies, taken together, will double their population once in twenty-five years for the next
century. In the United States, population has, on the average, doubled once in twenty-five years
since 1685. Adopting this ratio, then, for the English colonies, their 11,000,000 in 1880 will be
176,000,000 in 1980, and about 234,000,000 in 1990. Turning now to our own country, we find
in the following table the ratio of increase of population for each decade of years since 1800:
From 1800 to 1810 36.38%
From 1810 to 1820 34.80%
From 1820 to 1830 33.11%
From 1830 to 1840 32.66%
From 1840 to 1850 35.87%
From 1850 to 1860 35.58%
From 1860 to 1870 22.59%
From 1870 to 1880 30.06%
From 1880 to 1890 24.57%
Here we see a falling ratio of increase of about one per cent every ten years from 1800 to
1840—a period when immigration was inconsiderable. During the next twenty years the ratio was
decidedly higher, because of a large immigration. It fell off during the war, and again arose from
1870 to 1880, while it seems to have fallen from 1880 to 1890.


If the rate of increase for the next century is as great with immigration as it was from 1800
to 1840 without immigration, we shall have a falling ratio of increase of about one per cent every
ten years. Beginning, then, with an increase of twenty-four per cent from 1890 to 1900, our
population in 1990 would be 373,000,000, making the total Anglo-Saxon population of the
world, at that time, 667,000,000, as compared with 570,000,000 inhabitants of continental
Europe. When we consider how much more favorable are the conditions for the increase of
population in Anglo-Saxon countries than in continental Europe, and remember that we have
reckoned the growth of European population at its rate of increase from 1870 to 1880, while we
have reckoned Anglo-Saxon growth at much less than its rate of increase during the same ten
years, we may be reasonably confident that a hundred years hence this one race will outnumber all
the peoples of continental Europe. And it is possible that, by the close of the next century, the
Anglo-Saxons will outnumber all the other civilized races of the world. Does it not look as if God
were not only preparing in our Anglo-Saxon civilization the die with which to stamp the peoples
of the earth, but as if he were also massing behind that die the mighty power with which to press
it? My confidence that this race is eventually to give its civilization to mankind is not based on
mere numbers—China forbid! I look forward to what the world has never yet seen united in the
same race; viz., the greatest numbers, and the highest civilization.
There can be no reasonable doubt that North America is to be the great home of the
Anglo-Saxon, the principal seat of his power, the center of his life and influence. Not only does it
constitute seven-elevenths of his possessions, but here his empire is unsevered, while the
remaining four-elevenths are fragmentary and scattered over the earth. Australia will have a great
population; but its disadvantages, as compared with North America, are too manifest to need
mention. Our continent has room and resources and climate, it lies in the pathway of the nations,
it belongs to the zone of power, and already, among Anglo-Saxons, do we lead in population and
wealth. Of England, Franklin once wrote: "That pretty island which, compared to America, is but
a stepping-stone in a brook, scarce enough of it above water to keep one's shoes dry." England
can hardly hope to maintain her relative importance among Anglo-Saxon peoples when her
"pretty island" is the home of only one-twentieth part of that race. With the wider distribution of
wealth, and increasing facilities of intercourse, intelligence and influence are less centralized, and
peoples become more homogeneous; and the more nearly homogeneous peoples are, the more do
numbers tell.
America is to have the great preponderance of numbers and of wealth, and by the logic of
events will follow the scepter of controlling influence. This will be but the consummation of a
movement as old as civilization—a result to which men have looked forward for centuries. John
Adams records that nothing was "more ancient in his memory than the observation that arts,
sciences and empire had traveled westward; and in conversation it was always added that their
next leap would be over the Atlantic into America." He recalled a couplet that had been inscribed
or rather drilled, into a rock on the shore of Monument Bay in our old colony of Plymouth:
"'The Eastern nations sink, their glory ends,
And empire rises where the sun descends.'"
The brilliant Galiani, who foresaw a future in which Europe should be ruled by America,
wrote, during the Revolutionary War: "I will wager in favor of America, for the reason merely physical, that for 5,000 years genius has turned opposite to the diurnal motion, and traveled from
the East to the West."
Count d'Aranda, after signing the Treaty of Paris of 1773, as
representative of Spain, wrote his king: "This Federal Republic is born a pigmy… a day will come
when it will be a giant, even a colossus formidable in these countries."
Adam Smith, in his Wealth of Nations, predicts the transfer of empire from Europe to
America. The traveler, Burnaby, found, in the middle of the last century, that an idea had "entered
into the minds of the generality of mankind, that empire is traveling westward; and every one is
looking forward with eager and impatient expectation to that destined moment when America is
to give the law to the rest of the world." Charles Sumner wrote of the "coming time when the
whole continent, with all its various states, shall be a Plural Unit, with one Constitution, one
Liberty and one Destiny," and when "the national example will be more puissant than army or
navy for the conquest of the world."
It surely needs no prophet's eye to see that the civilization of
the United States is to be the civilization of America, and that the future of the continent is ours.
In 1880, the United States had already become the home of more than one-half of the AngloSaxon race; and, if the computations already given, are correct, a much larger proportion will be
here a hundred years hence. It has been shown that we have room for at least a thousand millions.
According to the latest figures, there is in France (1886), a population of 187 to the square mile;
in Germany (1885), 221.8; in England and Wales (1889), 498; in Belgium (1888), 530; in the
United States (1890)—not including Alaska—21. If our population were as dense as that of
France, we should have, this side of Alaska, 555,000,000; if as dense as that of Germany,
658,000,000; if as dense as that of England and Wales, 1,452,000,000; if as dense as that of
Belgium 1,574,000,000, or more than the present estimated population of the globe.
And we are to have not only the larger portion of the Anglo-Saxon race, but we may
reasonably expect to develop the highest type of Anglo-Saxon civilization. If human progress
follows a law of development, if
"Time's noblest offspring is the last,"
our civilization should be the noblest; for we are
"The heirs of all the ages in the foremost files of time,"
and not only do we occupy the latitude of power, but our land is the last to be occupied in that
latitude. There is no other virgin soil in the North Temperate Zone. If the consummation of
human progress is not to be looked for here, if there is yet to flower a higher civilization, where is
the soil that is to produce it? Whipple says: "There has never been a great migration that did not
result in a new form of national genius."
Our national genius is Anglo-Saxon, but not English, its
distinctive type is the result of a finer nervous organization, which is certainly being developed in
this country. "The history of the world's progress from savagery to barbarism, from barbarism to
civilization, and, in civilization, from the lower degrees toward the higher, is the history of increase in average longevity,
corresponding to, and accompanied by, increase of nervousness.
Mankind has grown to be at once more delicate and more enduring, more sensitive to weariness
and yet more patient of toil, impressible, but capable of bearing powerful irritation; we are woven
of finer fiber, which, though apparently frail, yet outlasts the coarser, as rich and costly garments
oftentimes wear better than those of rougher workmanship."
The roots of civilization are the
nerves; and other things being equal, the finest nervous organization will produce the highest
civilization. Heretofore, war has been almost the chief occupation of strong races. The mission of
the Anglo-Saxon has been largely that of the soldier; but the world is making progress, we are
leaving behind the barbarism of war; as civilization advances, it will learn less of war, and concern
itself more with the arts of peace, and for these the massive battle-ax must be wrought into tools
of finer temper. The physical changes accompanied by mental, which are taking place in the
people of the United States are apparently to adapt men to the demands of a higher civilization.
But the objection is here interposed that the "physical degeneracy of America" is inconsistent with
the supposition of our advancing to a higher civilization. Professor Huxley, when at Buffalo he
addressed the American Association for the Advancement of Science, said he had heard of the
degeneration of the original American stock, but during his visit to the states he had failed to
perceive it. We are not, however, in this matter, dependent on the opinion of even the best
observers. During the War of the Confederacy, the Medical Department of the Provost Marshal
General's Bureau gathered statistics from the examination of over half a million of men, native and
foreign, young and old, sick and sound, drawn from every rank and condition of life, and, hence,
fairly representing the whole people. Dr. Baxter's Official Report shows that our native whites
were over an inch taller than the English, and nearly two thirds of an inch taller than the Scotch,
who, in height, were superior to all other foreigners. At the age of completed growth, the Irish,
who were the stoutest of the foreigners, surpassed the native whites, in girth of chest, less than a
quarter of an inch. Statistics as to weight are meager, but Dr. Baxter remarks that it is perhaps not
too much to say that the war statistics show "that the mean weight of the white native of the
United States is not disproportionate to his stature." Americans were found to be superior to
Englishmen not only in height, but also in chest measurement and weight. "Dealers in ready-made
clothing in the United States assert that they have been obliged to adopt a larger scale of sizes, in
width as well as length, to meet the demands of the average American man, than were required
ten years ago."
Such facts afford more than a hint that the higher civilization of the future will
not lack an adequate physical basis in the people of the United States.
Mr. Darwin is not only disposed to see, in the superior vigor of our people, an illustration
of his favorite theory of natural selection, but even intimates that the world's history thus far has
been simply preparatory for our future, and tributary to it. He says: "There is apparently much
truth in the belief that the wonderful progress of the United States, as well as the character of the
people, are the results of natural selection; for the more energetic, restless, and courageous men
from all parts of Europe have emigrated during the last ten or twelve generations to that great
country, and have there succeeded best. Looking at the distant future, I do not think that the Rev.
Mr. Zincke takes an exaggerated view when he says: 'All other series of events—as that which


resulted in the culture of mind in Greece, and that which resulted in the Empire of Rome—only
appear to have purpose and value when viewed in connection with, or rather as subsidiary to, the
great stream of Anglo-Saxon emigration to the West.'"
There is abundant reason to believe that the Anglo-Saxon race is to be, is, indeed, already
becoming, more effective here than in the mother country. The marked superiority of this race is
due, in large measure, to its highly mixed origin. Says Rawlinson: "It is a general rule, now almost
universally admitted by ethnologists, that the mixed races of mankind are superior to the pure
ones"; and adds: "Even the Jews, who are so often cited as an example of a race at once pure and
strong, may, with more reason, be adduced on the opposite side of the argument."
The ancient
Egyptians, the Greeks, and the Romans, were all mixed races. Among modern races, the most
conspicuous example is afforded by the Anglo-Saxons. Mr. Green's studies show that Mr.
Tennyson's poetic line,
"Saxon and Norman and Dane are we,"
must be supplemented with Celt and Gaul, Welshman and Irishman, Frisian and Flamand,
French Huguenot and German Palatine. What took place a thousand years ago and more in
England again transpires to-day in the United States. "History repeats itself"; but, as the wheels of
history are the chariot wheels of the Almighty, there is, with every revolution, an onward
movement toward the goal of His eternal purposes. There is here a new commingling of races;
and, while the largest injections of foreign blood are substantially the same elements that
constituted the original Anglo-Saxon admixture, so that we may infer the general type will be
preserved, there are strains of other bloods being added, which, if Mr. Emerson's remark is true,
that "the best nations are those most widely related," may be expected to improve the stock, and
aid it to a higher destiny. If the dangers of immigration, which have been pointed out, can be
successfully met for the next few years, until it has passed its climax, it may be expected to add
value to the amalgam which will constitute the new Anglo-Saxon race of the New World.
Concerning our future, Herbert Spencer says: "One great result is, I think, tolerably clear. From
biological truths it is to be inferred that the eventual mixture of the allied varieties of the Aryan
race, forming the population, will produce a more powerful type of man than has hitherto existed,
and a type of man more plastic, more adaptable, more capable of undergoing the modifications
needful for complete social life. I think, whatever difficulties they may have to surmount, and
whatever tribulations they may have to pass through, the Americans may reasonably look forward
to a time when they will have produced a civilization grander than any the world has known."
It may be easily shown, and is of no small significance, that the two great ideas of which
the Anglo-Saxon is the exponent are having a fuller development in the United States than in
Great Britain. There the union of Church and State tends strongly to paralyze some of the
members of the body of Christ. Here there is no such influence to destroy spiritual life and power.
Here, also, has been evolved the form of government consistent with the largest possible civil
liberty. Furthermore, it is significant that the marked characteristics of this race are being here
emphasized most. Among the most striking features of the Anglo-Saxon is his money-making
power—a power of increasing importance in the widening commerce of the world's future. We
have seen, in a preceding chapter, that, although England is by far the richest nation of Europe,we have already outstripped her in the race after wealth, and we have only begun the development
of our vast resources.
Again, another marked characteristic of the Anglo-Saxon is what may be called an instinct
or genius for colonizing. His unequaled energy, his indomitable perseverance, and his personal
independence, made him a pioneer. He excels all others in pushing his way into new countries. It
was those in whom this tendency was strongest that came to America, and this inherited tendency
has been further developed by the westward sweep of successive generations across the continent.
So noticeable has this characteristic become that English visitors remark it. Charles Dickens once
said that the typical American would hesitate to enter heaven unless assured that he could go
farther west.
Again, nothing more manifestly distinguishes the Anglo-Saxon than his intense and
persistent energy, and he is developing in the United States an energy which, in eager activity and
effectiveness, is peculiarly American.
This is due partly to the fact that Americans are much better fed than Europeans, and
partly to the undeveloped resources of a new country, but more largely to our climate, which acts
as a constant stimulus. Ten years after the landing of the Pilgrims, the Rev. Francis Higginson, a
good observer, wrote: "A sup of New England air is better than a whole flagon of English ale."
Thus early had the stimulating effect of our climate been noted. Moreover, our social institutions
are stimulating. In Europe the various ranks of society are, like the strata of the earth, fixed and
fossilized. There can be no great change without a terrible upheaval, a social earthquake. Here
society is like the waters of the sea, mobile; as General Garfield said, and so signally illustrated in
his own experience, that which is at the bottom to-day may one day flash on the crest of the
highest wave. Every one is free to become whatever he can make of himself; free to transform
himself from a rail-splitter or a tanner or a canal-boy, into the nation's President. Our aristocracy,
unlike that of Europe, is open to all comers. Wealth, position, influence, are prizes offered for
energy; and every farmer's boy, every apprentice and clerk, every friendless and penniless
immigrant, is free to enter the list. Thus many causes co-operate to produce here the most forceful
and tremendous energy in the world.
What is the significance of such facts? These tendencies infold the future; they are the
mighty alphabet with which God writes his prophecies. May we not, by a careful laying together
of the letters, spell out something of his meaning? It seems to me that God, with infinite wisdom
and skill, is training the Anglo-Saxon race for an hour sure to come in the world's future.
Heretofore there has always been in the history of the world a comparatively unoccupied land
westward, into which the crowded countries of the East have poured their surplus populations.
But the widening waves of migration, which millenniums ago rolled east and west from the valley
of the Euphrates, meet to-day on our Pacific coast. There are no more new worlds. The
unoccupied arable lands of the earth are limited, and will soon be taken. The time is coming when
the pressure of population on the means of subsistence will be felt here as it is now felt in Europe
and Asia. Then will the world enter upon a new stage of its history—the final competition of
races, for which the Anglo-Saxon is being schooled. Long before the thousand millions are here,
the mighty centrifugal tendency, inherent in this stock and strengthened in the United States, will
assert itself. Then this race of unequaled energy, with all the majesty of numbers and the might of
wealth behind it—the representative, let us hope, of the largest liberty, the purest Christianity, the
highest civilization—having developed peculiarly aggressive traits calculated to impress its
institutions upon mankind, will spread itself over the earth. If I read not amiss, this powerful race9
will move down upon Mexico, down upon Central and South America, out upon the islands of the
sea, over upon Africa and beyond. And can any one doubt that the result of this competition of
races will be the "survival of the fittest"? "Any people," says Dr. Bushnell, "that is physiologically
advanced in culture, though it be only in a degree beyond another which is mingled with it on
strictly equal terms, is sure to live down and finally live out its inferior. Nothing can save the
inferior race but a ready and pliant assimilation. Whether the feebler and more abject races are
going to be regenerated and raised up, is already very much of a question. What if it should be
God's plan to people the world with better and finer material?
"Certain it is, whatever expectations we may indulge, that there is a tremendous
overbearing surge of power in the Christian nations, which, if the others are not speedily raised to
some vastly higher capacity, will inevitably submerge and bury them forever. These great
populations of Christendom—what are they doing, but throwing out their colonies on every side,
and populating themselves, if I may so speak, into the possession of all countries and climes?"
To this result no war of extermination is needful; the contest is not one of arms, but of vitality and
of civilization. "At the present day," says Mr. Darwin, "civilized nations are everywhere
supplanting barbarous nations, excepting where the climate opposes a deadly barrier; and they
succeed mainly, though not exclusively, through their arts, which are the products of the
Thus the Finns were supplanted by the Aryan races in Europe and Asia, the Tartars by
the Russians, and thus the aborigines of North America, Australia and New Zealand are now
disappearing before the all-conquering Anglo-Saxons. It seems as if these inferior tribes were only
precursors of a superior race, voices in the wilderness crying: "Prepare ye the way of the Lord!"
The savage is a hunter; by the incoming of civilization the game is driven away and disappears
before the hunter becomes a herder or an agriculturist. The savage is ignorant of many diseases of
civilization which, when he is exposed to them, attack him before he learns how to treat them.
Civilization also has its vices, of which the uninitiated savage is innocent. He proves an apt learner
of vice, but dull enough in the school of morals.
Every civilization has its destructive and preservative elements. The Anglo-Saxon race
would speedily decay but for the salt of Christianity. Bring savages into contact with our
civilization, and its destructive forces become operative at once, while years are necessary to
render effective the saving influences of Christian instruction. Moreover, the pioneer wave of our
civilization carries with it more scum than salt. Where there is one missionary, there are hundreds
of miners or traders or adventurers ready to debauch the native.
Whether the extinction of inferior races before the advancing Anglo-Saxon seems to the
reader sad or otherwise, it certainly appears probable. I know of nothing except climatic
conditions to prevent this race from populating Africa as it has peopled North America. And those
portions of Africa which are unfavorable to Anglo-Saxon life are less extensive than was once
supposed. The Dutch Boers, after two centuries of life there, are as hardy as any race on earth.
The Anglo-Saxon has established himself in climates totally diverse—Canada, South Africa and
India—and, through several generations, has preserved his essential race characteristics. He is not,
of course, superior to climatic influences; but even in warm climates, he is likely to retain his
aggressive vigor long enough to supplant races already enfeebled. Thus, in what Dr. Bushnell calls


"the out-populating power of the Christian stock," may be found God's final and complete
solution of the dark problem of heathenism among many inferior peoples.
Some of the stronger races, doubtless, may be able to preserve their integrity; but, in order
to compete with the Anglo-Saxon, they will probably be forced to adopt his methods and
instruments, his civilization and his religion. Significant movements are now in progress among
them. While the Christian religion was never more vital, or its hold upon the Anglo-Saxon mind
stronger, there is taking place among the nations a widespread intellectual revolt against
traditional beliefs. "In every corner of the world," says Mr. Froude, "there is the same
phenomenon of the decay of established religions.... Among the Mohammedans, Jews, Buddhists,
Brahmins, traditionary creeds are losing their hold. An intellectual revolution is sweeping over the
world, breaking down established opinions, dissolving foundations on which historical faiths have
been built up."
The contact of Christian with heathen nations is awakening the latter to new life.
Old superstitions are loosening their grasp. The dead crust of fossil faiths is being shattered by the
movements of life underneath. In Catholic countries, Catholicism is losing its influence over
educated minds, and in some cases the masses have already lost all faith in it. Thus, while on this
continent God is training the Anglo-Saxon race for its mission, a complemental work has been in
progress in the great world beyond. God has two hands. Not only is he preparing in our
civilization the die with which to stamp the nations, but, by what Southey called the "timing of
Providence," he is preparing mankind to receive our impress.
Is there room for reasonable doubt that this race, unless devitalized by alcohol and
tobacco, is destined to dispossess many weaker races, assimilate others, and mold the remainder,
until, in a very true and important sense, it has Anglo-Saxonized mankind? Already "the English
language, saturated with Christian ideas, gathering up into itself the best thought of all the ages, is
the great agent of Christian civilization throughout the world; at this moment affecting the
destinies and molding the character of half the human race."
Jacob Grimm, the German
philologist, said of this language: "It seems chosen, like its people, to rule in future times in a still
greater degree in all the corners of the earth." He predicted, indeed, that the language of
Shakespeare would eventually become the language of mankind. Is not Tennyson's noble
prophecy to find its fulfillment in Anglo-Saxondom's extending its dominion and influence—
"Till the war-drum throbs no longer, and the battle-flags are furl'd ,
In the Parliament of man, the Federation of the world."
In my own mind, there is no doubt that the Anglo-Saxon is to exercise the commanding
influence in the world's future; but the exact nature of that influence is, as yet, undetermined. How
far his civilization will be materialistic and atheistic, and how long it will take thoroughly to
Christianize and sweeten it, how rapidly he will hasten the coming of the kingdom wherein
dwelleth righteousness, or how many ages he may retard it, is still uncertain; but is now being
swiftly determined. Let us weld together in a chain the various links of our logic which we have
endeavored to forge. Is it manifest that the Anglo-Saxon holds in his hands the destinies of
mankind for ages to come? Is it evident that the United States is to be the home of this race, theprincipal seat of his power, the great center of his influence? Is it true (see Chap. III.) that the
great West is to dominate the nation's future? Has it been shown (Chapters XII. and XIII.) that
this generation is to determine the character, and hence the destiny of the West? Then may God
open the eyes of this generation! When Napoleon drew up his troops before the Mamelukes,
under the shadow of the Pyramids, pointing to the latter, he said to his soldiers: "Remember that
from yonder heights forty centuries look down on you." Men of this generation, from the pyramid
top of opportunity on which God has set us, we look down on forty centuries! We stretch our
hand into the future with power to mold the destinies of unborn millions.
"We are living, we are dwelling,
In a grand and awful time,
In an age on ages telling
To be living is sublime!"
Notwithstanding the great perils which threaten it, I cannot think our civilization will
perish; but I believe it is fully in the hands of the Christians of the United States, during the next
ten or fifteen years, to hasten or retard the coming of Christ's kingdom in the world by hundreds,
and perhaps thousands, of years. We of this generation and nation occupy the Gibraltar of the
ages which commands the world's future.

Niccolo and Donkey


Niccolo and Donkey
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